Scottish Collie is the name originally given to the two dog types now often divided into Rough Collie and Smooth Collie. They were derived originally from herding dogs from Scotland and northern England, with mixture from other breeds, particular the Borzoi. See Collie for other types of collie and related dog types.
Scottish Collies are known to be generally sweet and protective. They are generally easy to train due to a high level of intelligence and a willingness to please. Some are a bit clingy, but this is often seen as an overdeveloped sense of loyalty. They are excellent herding dogs and benefit from the companionship of a family or other dogs. Scottish Collies are very playful and gentle around children. They can also exhibit a strong herding instinct, especially around children.
The origin and history of the Scottish Collie dog breed is not entirely known, but we do know that it included ancestors originating in Scotland and northern England. Before this time, however, the breed has an ancestry that spans thousands of years as the Scottish Collie's ancestors had been used to herd sheep and cattle for many centuries in both the Highlands of Scotland and throughout early England. The word "collie" is thought to come from the word for "black" or "coal" in Old English. But the word could also trace to Gaelic or/and Irish, in which the words for "doggie" are, respectively, càilean and cóilean. It is also possible the word collie is of mutual English and Gaelic derivation.
The Scottish Collie breed consists of both the Rough Collie and the Smooth Collie. A division between long-haired and short-haired variants also existed in the 19th century. However, it is apparent that at one point the Scottish Collie was much smaller than today's dog, like the many other working collie breeds. The ancestor of the Scottish Collie was short, somewhere around 14 inches or so at the shoulders with a broader head, and black or black-and-white. The dogs that came to be the Scottish Collie had been used to herd and guard the flocks and herds of their caretakers.
Although the Scottish Collie and its ancestors had been used for several centuries as a working dog herding sheep and cattle, it was in England in the 19th century that the dog became popular as a pet and show dog rather than a working dog breed. Queen Victoria took an interest in Scottish Collies and the rest of the country soon followed suit. It was also at this time that the dog became larger through cross-breeding with breeds such as Borzois. At this point, Scottish Collie breeders began to standardize the breed and keep written pedigree records. Scottish Collies were shown in dog shows in England as early as 1860 and made its way to the United states by 1880. By about 1886, the Scottish Collie breed was fully standardized and remains roughly the same today. It was in this same year the Collie Club of America was formed, becoming one of the founder breeds of the American Kennel Club.
A surge in popularity occurred in the United States in the 1940s and 1950s with the release of the movie "Lassie Come Home" in 1943 and the subsequent television series that began in 1954 and ran for seventeen years.